The ultraviolet (UV) components of sunlight induce damage to the DNA in skin cells, which is considered to be the initiating step in the harmful biological effects of UV radiation. Repair of DNA damage results in the formation of single-strand DNA breaks, which activate the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overactivation of PARP worsens the oxidative cell damage and impairs the energy metabolism, raising the possibility that moderation of PARP activation following DNA damage may protect skin cells from UV radiation. The topical effects of the novel PARP inhibitor O-(3-pyperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amidoxime monohydrochloride (BGP-15M) were investigated on UV-induced skin damage in a hairless mouse model. For evaluation of the UV-induced acute photodamage to the skin and the potential protective effect of BGP-15M, DNA injury was detected by measuring the formation of single-strand DNA breaks and counting the resulting sunburn (apoptotic) cells. The ADP-ribosylation of PARP was assessed by Western blot analysis and then quantified. In addition, the UV-induced immunosuppression was investigated by the immunostaining of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 expressions in epidermal cells. The signs of inflammation were examined clinically and histochemically. Besides its primary effect in decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP, topically applied BGP-15M proved to be protective against solar and artificial UV radiation-induced acute skin damage. The DNA injury was decreased (P<0.01). An inhibition of immunosuppression was observed by down-regulation of the epidermal production of cytokines IL-10 and TNFalpha. In the mouse skin, clinical or histological signs of UV-induced inflammation could not be observed. These data suggest that BGP-15M directly interferes with UV-induced cellular processes and modifies the activity of PARP. The effects provided by topical application of the new PARP-regulator BGP-15M indicate that it may be a novel type of agent in photoprotection of the skin.
Reduction of acute photodamage in skin by topical application of a novel PARP inhibitor.
BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivate protecting heart from ischemia reperfusion injury through modulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.
The protective effect of O-(3-piperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl)nicotinic amidoxime (BGP-15) against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury was studied in the Langendorff heart perfusion system. To understand the molecular mechanism of the cardioprotection, the effect of BGP-15 on ischemic-reperfusion-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation single-strand DNA break formation, NAD(+) catabolism, and endogenous ADP-ribosylation reactions were investigated. These studies showed that BGP-15 significantly decreased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase in reperfused hearts, and reduced the rate of NAD(+) catabolism. In addition, BGP-15 dramatically decreased the ischemia-reperfusion-induced self-ADP-ribosylation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP) and the mono-ADP-ribosylation of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78. These data raise the possibility that BGP-15 may have a direct inhibitory effect on PARP. This hypothesis was tested on isolated enzyme, and kinetic analysis showed a mixed-type (noncompetitive) inhibition with a K(i) = 57 +/- 6 microM. Furthermore, BGP-15 decreased levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and single-strand DNA breaks in reperfused hearts. These data suggest that PARP may be an important molecular target of BGP-15 and that BGP-15 decreases ROS levels and cell injury during ischemia-reperfusion in the heart by inhibiting PARP activity.
BGP-15 - a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor - protects against nephrotoxicity of cisplatin without compromising its antitumor activity.
Nephrotoxicity is one of the major dose limiting side effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. The antitumor and toxic effects are mediated in part by different mechanisms, thus, permitting a selective inhibition of certain side effects. The influence of O-(3-piperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl)nicotinic amidoxime (BGP-15) - a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor - on the nephrotoxicity and antitumor efficacy of cisplatin has been evaluated in experimental models. BGP-15 either blocked or significantly reduced (60-90% in 100-200 mg/kg oral dose) cisplatin induced increase in serum urea and creatinine level in mice and rats and prevented the structural degeneration of the kidney, as well. The nephroprotective effect of BGP-15 treatment was revealed also in living mice by MRI analysis manifesting in the lack of oedema which otherwise developed as a result of cisplatin treatment. The protective effect was accompanied by inhibition of cisplatin-induced poly-ADP-ribosylation and by the restoration of the disturbed energy metabolism. The preservation of ATP level in the kidney was demonstrated in vivo by localized NMR spectroscopy. BGP-15 decreased cisplatin-induced ROS production in rat kidney mitochondria and improved the antioxidant status of the kidney in mice with cisplatin-induced nephropathy. In rat kidney, cisplatin caused a decrease in the level of Bcl-x, a mitochondrial protective protein, and this was normalized by BGP-15 treatment. On the other hand, BGP-15 did not inhibit the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in cell culture and in transplantable solid tumors of mice. Treatment with BGP-15 increased the mean survival time of cisplatin-treated P-388 leukemia bearing mice from 13 to 19 days. PARP inhibitors have been demonstrated to diminish the consequences of free radical-induced damage, and this is related to the chemoprotective effect of BGP-15, a novel PARP inhibitor. Based on these results, we propose that BGP-15 represents a novel, non-thiol chemoprotective agent.
BGP-15, a hydroximic acid derivative, protects against cisplatin- or taxol-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats.
The neuroprotective effect of BGP-15 against peripheral sensory neuropathy was studied in rats that were exposed to short-term cisplatin or taxol administration. The changes of nerve conduction velocity were determined in situ after treating the Wistar rats with BGP-15 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg po daily doses throughout the experiment), cisplatin (1.5 mg/kg ip daily dose for 5 days), or taxol (5.0 mg/kg ip daily dose every other day in a 10-day interval) alone or giving the test compound in combination with cisplatin or taxol. Electrophysiological recordings were carried out in vivo by stimulating the sciatic nerve at both sciatic notch and ankle site. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was altered by any dose level of BGP-15 tested. Both anticancer drugs decreased the sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). BGP-15 treatment prevented the impairment of SNCV either in part or totally in the cisplatin- or taxol-treated groups. This neuroprotective potential of BGP-15 could be well correlated with its recently described poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase- inhibitory effect and its ability to protect against the damages induced by the increased level of reactive oxygen species in response to anticancer treatment.
Influence of BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivative, on the vascularization and growth of murine hepatoma xenografts.
BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis, is controlled by the oxygen supply. Previous observations suggested that nicotinic amidoxime derivatives (i.e. BGP-15) might interfere with the induction of hypoxia-sensitive genes. Hence, the effect of BGP-15 on angiogenesis was studied in Hepa 1c1c7 tumor xenografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepa 1c1c7 hepatoma cells were implanted under the dorsal skin of female CD-1-nu/nu immunodeficient mice. One group of animals was given 100 mg/kg body weight/day BGP-15 intraperitoneally during tumor development. Vascularization, apoptotic and mitotic indices were determined by the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tumors. VEGF and GLUT-1 expressions were measured by Northern blot. RESULTS: The in vivo administration of BGP-15 resulted in a decrease in tumor weight and mitotic index, while it did not affect the apoptotic rate in the xenograft. Furthermore, BGP-15 treatment depressed microvascular density and the level of VEGF mRNA by 50%, and similarly decreased GLUT-1 mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that BGP-15 suppresses hepatoma development by affecting angiogenesis.
HSP72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance.
Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, which correlates with reduced insulin sensitivity. Heat therapy, which activates HSP72, improves clinical parameters in these patients. Activation of several inflammatory signaling proteins such as c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of kappaB kinase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, can induce insulin resistance, but HSP 72 can block the induction of these molecules in vitro. Accordingly, we examined whether activation of HSP72 can protect against the development of insulin resistance. First, we show that obese, insulin resistant humans have reduced HSP72 protein expression and increased JNK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. We next used heat shock therapy, transgenic overexpression, and pharmacologic means to overexpress HSP72 either specifically in skeletal muscle or globally in mice. Herein, we show that regardless of the means used to achieve an elevation in HSP72 protein, protection against diet- or obesity-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance was observed. This protection was tightly associated with the prevention of JNK phosphorylation. These findings identify an essential role for HSP72 in blocking inflammation and preventing insulin resistance in the context of genetic obesity or high-fat feeding.
Effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on the ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative cell damage and mitochondrial metabolism in Langendorff heart perfusion system.
Ischemia-reperfusion induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and ROS lead to cardiac dysfunction, in part, via the activation of the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, called also PARS and ADP-RT). ROS and peroxynitrite induce single-strand DNA break formation and PARP activation, resulting in NAD(+) and ATP depletion, which can lead to cell death. Although protection of cardiac muscle by PARP inhibitors can be explained by their attenuating effect on NAD(+) and ATP depletion, there are data indicating that PARP inhibitors also protect mitochondria from oxidant-induced injury. Studying cardiac energy metabolism in Langendorff heart perfusion system by (31)P NMR, we found that PARP inhibitors (3-aminobenzamide, nicotinamide, BGP-15, and 4-hydroxyquinazoline) improved the recovery of high-energy phosphates (ATP, creatine phosphate) and accelerated the reutilization of inorganic phosphate formed during the ischemic period, showing that PARP inhibitors facilitate the faster and more complete recovery of the energy production. Furthermore, PARP inhibitors significantly decrease the ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, single-strand DNA breaks, and the inactivation of respiratory complexes, which indicate a decreased mitochondrial ROS production in the reperfusion period. Surprisingly, PARP inhibitors, but not the chemically similar 3-aminobenzoic acid, prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inactivation of cytochrome oxidase in isolated heart mitochondria, suggesting the presence of an additional mitochondrial target for PARP inhibitors. Therefore, PARP inhibitors, in addition to their important primary effect of decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP and decreasing NAD(+) and ATP consumption, reduce ischemia-reperfusion-induced endogenous ROS production and protect the respiratory complexes from ROS induced inactivation, providing an additional mechanism by which they can protect heart from oxidative damages.
BGP-15 inhibits caspase-independent programmed cell death in acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
It has been recently shown that acute acetaminophen toxicity results in endoplasmic reticulum redox stress and an increase in cells with apoptotic phenotype in liver. Since activation of effector caspases was absent, the relevance of caspase-independent mechanisms in acetaminophen-induced programmed cell death was investigated. BGP-15, a drug with known protective actions in conditions involving redox imbalance, has been co-administered with a single sublethal dose of acetaminophen. Proapoptotic events and outcome of the injury were investigated. ER redox alterations and early ER-stress-related signaling events induced by acetaminophen, such as ER glutathione depletion, phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and JNK and induction of the transcription factor GADD153, were not counteracted by co-treatment with BGP-15. However, BGP-15 prevented AIF mitochondria-to-nucleus translocation and mitochondrial depolarization. BGP-15 co-treatment attenuated the rate of acetaminophen-induced cell death as assessed by apoptotic index and enzyme serum release. These results reaffirm that acute acetaminophen toxicity involves oxidative stress-induced caspase-independent cell death. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of AIF translocation may effectively protect against or at least delay acetaminophen-induced programmed cell death.
Membrane-lipid therapy in operation: the HSP co-inducer BGP-15 activates stress signal transduction pathways by remodeling plasma membrane rafts.
Aging and pathophysiological conditions are linked to membrane changes which modulate membrane-controlled molecular switches, causing dysregulated heat shock protein (HSP) expression. HSP co-inducer hydroxylamines such as BGP-15 provide advanced therapeutic candidates for many diseases since they preferentially affect stressed cells and are unlikely have major side effects. In the present study in vitro molecular dynamic simulation, experiments with lipid monolayers and in vivo ultrasensitive fluorescence microscopy showed that BGP-15 alters the organization of cholesterol-rich membrane domains. Imaging of nanoscopic long-lived platforms using the raft marker glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored monomeric green fluorescent protein diffusing in the live Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell plasma membrane demonstrated that BGP-15 prevents the transient structural disintegration of rafts induced by fever-type heat stress. Moreover, BGP-15 was able to remodel cholesterol-enriched lipid platforms reminiscent of those observed earlier following non-lethal heat priming or membrane stress, and were shown to be obligate for the generation and transmission of stress signals. BGP-15 activation of HSP expression in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells involves the Rac1 signaling cascade in accordance with the previous observation that cholesterol affects the targeting of Rac1 to membranes. Finally, in a human embryonic kidney cell line we demonstrate that BGP-15 is able to inhibit the rapid heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) acetylation monitored during the early phase of heat stress, thereby promoting a prolonged duration of HSF1 binding to heat shock elements. Taken together, our results indicate that BGP-15 has the potential to become a new class of pharmaceuticals for use in 'membrane-lipid therapy' to combat many various protein-misfolding diseases associated with aging.
Effects of different small HSPB members on contractile dysfunction and structural changes in a Drosophila melanogaster model for Atrial Fibrillation.
The most common clinical tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation (AF), is a progressive disease, caused by cardiomyocyte remodeling, which finally results in contractile dysfunction and AF persistence. Recently, we identified a protective role of heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially the small HSPB1 member, against tachycardia remodeling in experimental AF models. Our understanding of tachycardia remodeling and anti-remodeling drugs is currently hampered by the lack of suitable (genetic) manipulatable in vivo models for rapid screening of key targets in remodeling. We hypothesized that Drosophila melanogaster can be exploited to study tachycardia remodeling and protective effects of HSPs by drug treatments or by utilizing genetically manipulated small HSP-overexpressing strains. Tachypacing of Drosophila pupae resulted in gradual and significant cardiomyocyte remodeling, demonstrated by reduced contraction rate, increase in arrhythmic episodes and reduction in heart wall shortening, compared to normal paced pupae. Heat shock, or pre-treatment with HSP-inducers GGA and BGP-15, resulted in endogenous HSP overexpression and protection against tachycardia remodeling. DmHSP23 overexpressing Drosophilas were protected against tachycardia remodeling, in contrast to overexpression of other small HSPs (DmHSP27, DmHSP67Bc, DmCG4461, DmCG7409, and DmCG14207). (Ultra)structural evaluation of the tachypaced heart wall revealed loss of sarcomeres and mitochondrial damage which were absent in tachypaced DmHSP23 overexpressing Drosophila. In addition, tachypacing induced a significant increase in calpain activity, which was prevented in tachypaced Drosophila overexpressing DmHSP23. Tachypacing of Drosophila resulted in cardiomyocyte remodeling, which was prevented by general HSP-inducing treatments and overexpression of a single small HSP, DmHSP23. Thus, tachypaced D. melanogaster can be used as an in vivo model system for rapid identification of novel targets to combat AF associated cardiomyocyte remodeling.