The neuroprotective effect of BGP-15 against peripheral sensory neuropathy was studied in rats that were exposed to short-term cisplatin or taxol administration. The changes of nerve conduction velocity were determined in situ after treating the Wistar rats with BGP-15 (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg po daily doses throughout the experiment), cisplatin (1.5 mg/kg ip daily dose for 5 days), or taxol (5.0 mg/kg ip daily dose every other day in a 10-day interval) alone or giving the test compound in combination with cisplatin or taxol. Electrophysiological recordings were carried out in vivo by stimulating the sciatic nerve at both sciatic notch and ankle site. Neither motor nor sensory nerve conduction velocity was altered by any dose level of BGP-15 tested. Both anticancer drugs decreased the sensory nerve conduction velocity (SNCV). BGP-15 treatment prevented the impairment of SNCV either in part or totally in the cisplatin- or taxol-treated groups. This neuroprotective potential of BGP-15 could be well correlated with its recently described poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase- inhibitory effect and its ability to protect against the damages induced by the increased level of reactive oxygen species in response to anticancer treatment.
BGP-15, a hydroximic acid derivative, protects against cisplatin- or taxol-induced peripheral neuropathy in rats.
Reduction of acute photodamage in skin by topical application of a novel PARP inhibitor.
The ultraviolet (UV) components of sunlight induce damage to the DNA in skin cells, which is considered to be the initiating step in the harmful biological effects of UV radiation. Repair of DNA damage results in the formation of single-strand DNA breaks, which activate the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overactivation of PARP worsens the oxidative cell damage and impairs the energy metabolism, raising the possibility that moderation of PARP activation following DNA damage may protect skin cells from UV radiation. The topical effects of the novel PARP inhibitor O-(3-pyperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid amidoxime monohydrochloride (BGP-15M) were investigated on UV-induced skin damage in a hairless mouse model. For evaluation of the UV-induced acute photodamage to the skin and the potential protective effect of BGP-15M, DNA injury was detected by measuring the formation of single-strand DNA breaks and counting the resulting sunburn (apoptotic) cells. The ADP-ribosylation of PARP was assessed by Western blot analysis and then quantified. In addition, the UV-induced immunosuppression was investigated by the immunostaining of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin-10 expressions in epidermal cells. The signs of inflammation were examined clinically and histochemically. Besides its primary effect in decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP, topically applied BGP-15M proved to be protective against solar and artificial UV radiation-induced acute skin damage. The DNA injury was decreased (P<0.01). An inhibition of immunosuppression was observed by down-regulation of the epidermal production of cytokines IL-10 and TNFalpha. In the mouse skin, clinical or histological signs of UV-induced inflammation could not be observed. These data suggest that BGP-15M directly interferes with UV-induced cellular processes and modifies the activity of PARP. The effects provided by topical application of the new PARP-regulator BGP-15M indicate that it may be a novel type of agent in photoprotection of the skin.
Effect of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors on the ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative cell damage and mitochondrial metabolism in Langendorff heart perfusion system.
Ischemia-reperfusion induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, and ROS lead to cardiac dysfunction, in part, via the activation of the nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP, called also PARS and ADP-RT). ROS and peroxynitrite induce single-strand DNA break formation and PARP activation, resulting in NAD(+) and ATP depletion, which can lead to cell death. Although protection of cardiac muscle by PARP inhibitors can be explained by their attenuating effect on NAD(+) and ATP depletion, there are data indicating that PARP inhibitors also protect mitochondria from oxidant-induced injury. Studying cardiac energy metabolism in Langendorff heart perfusion system by (31)P NMR, we found that PARP inhibitors (3-aminobenzamide, nicotinamide, BGP-15, and 4-hydroxyquinazoline) improved the recovery of high-energy phosphates (ATP, creatine phosphate) and accelerated the reutilization of inorganic phosphate formed during the ischemic period, showing that PARP inhibitors facilitate the faster and more complete recovery of the energy production. Furthermore, PARP inhibitors significantly decrease the ischemia-reperfusion-induced increase of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, single-strand DNA breaks, and the inactivation of respiratory complexes, which indicate a decreased mitochondrial ROS production in the reperfusion period. Surprisingly, PARP inhibitors, but not the chemically similar 3-aminobenzoic acid, prevented the H(2)O(2)-induced inactivation of cytochrome oxidase in isolated heart mitochondria, suggesting the presence of an additional mitochondrial target for PARP inhibitors. Therefore, PARP inhibitors, in addition to their important primary effect of decreasing the activity of nuclear PARP and decreasing NAD(+) and ATP consumption, reduce ischemia-reperfusion-induced endogenous ROS production and protect the respiratory complexes from ROS induced inactivation, providing an additional mechanism by which they can protect heart from oxidative damages.
BGP-15 - a novel poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor - protects against nephrotoxicity of cisplatin without compromising its antitumor activity.
Nephrotoxicity is one of the major dose limiting side effects of cisplatin chemotherapy. The antitumor and toxic effects are mediated in part by different mechanisms, thus, permitting a selective inhibition of certain side effects. The influence of O-(3-piperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl)nicotinic amidoxime (BGP-15) - a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor - on the nephrotoxicity and antitumor efficacy of cisplatin has been evaluated in experimental models. BGP-15 either blocked or significantly reduced (60-90% in 100-200 mg/kg oral dose) cisplatin induced increase in serum urea and creatinine level in mice and rats and prevented the structural degeneration of the kidney, as well. The nephroprotective effect of BGP-15 treatment was revealed also in living mice by MRI analysis manifesting in the lack of oedema which otherwise developed as a result of cisplatin treatment. The protective effect was accompanied by inhibition of cisplatin-induced poly-ADP-ribosylation and by the restoration of the disturbed energy metabolism. The preservation of ATP level in the kidney was demonstrated in vivo by localized NMR spectroscopy. BGP-15 decreased cisplatin-induced ROS production in rat kidney mitochondria and improved the antioxidant status of the kidney in mice with cisplatin-induced nephropathy. In rat kidney, cisplatin caused a decrease in the level of Bcl-x, a mitochondrial protective protein, and this was normalized by BGP-15 treatment. On the other hand, BGP-15 did not inhibit the antitumor efficacy of cisplatin in cell culture and in transplantable solid tumors of mice. Treatment with BGP-15 increased the mean survival time of cisplatin-treated P-388 leukemia bearing mice from 13 to 19 days. PARP inhibitors have been demonstrated to diminish the consequences of free radical-induced damage, and this is related to the chemoprotective effect of BGP-15, a novel PARP inhibitor. Based on these results, we propose that BGP-15 represents a novel, non-thiol chemoprotective agent.
HSP72 protects against obesity-induced insulin resistance.
Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced gene expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 72, which correlates with reduced insulin sensitivity. Heat therapy, which activates HSP72, improves clinical parameters in these patients. Activation of several inflammatory signaling proteins such as c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor of kappaB kinase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, can induce insulin resistance, but HSP 72 can block the induction of these molecules in vitro. Accordingly, we examined whether activation of HSP72 can protect against the development of insulin resistance. First, we show that obese, insulin resistant humans have reduced HSP72 protein expression and increased JNK phosphorylation in skeletal muscle. We next used heat shock therapy, transgenic overexpression, and pharmacologic means to overexpress HSP72 either specifically in skeletal muscle or globally in mice. Herein, we show that regardless of the means used to achieve an elevation in HSP72 protein, protection against diet- or obesity-induced hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, and insulin resistance was observed. This protection was tightly associated with the prevention of JNK phosphorylation. These findings identify an essential role for HSP72 in blocking inflammation and preventing insulin resistance in the context of genetic obesity or high-fat feeding.
BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivate protecting heart from ischemia reperfusion injury through modulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase.
The protective effect of O-(3-piperidino-2-hydroxy-1-propyl)nicotinic amidoxime (BGP-15) against ischemia-reperfusion-induced injury was studied in the Langendorff heart perfusion system. To understand the molecular mechanism of the cardioprotection, the effect of BGP-15 on ischemic-reperfusion-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, lipid peroxidation single-strand DNA break formation, NAD(+) catabolism, and endogenous ADP-ribosylation reactions were investigated. These studies showed that BGP-15 significantly decreased leakage of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase in reperfused hearts, and reduced the rate of NAD(+) catabolism. In addition, BGP-15 dramatically decreased the ischemia-reperfusion-induced self-ADP-ribosylation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase(PARP) and the mono-ADP-ribosylation of an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone GRP78. These data raise the possibility that BGP-15 may have a direct inhibitory effect on PARP. This hypothesis was tested on isolated enzyme, and kinetic analysis showed a mixed-type (noncompetitive) inhibition with a K(i) = 57 +/- 6 microM. Furthermore, BGP-15 decreased levels of ROS, lipid peroxidation, and single-strand DNA breaks in reperfused hearts. These data suggest that PARP may be an important molecular target of BGP-15 and that BGP-15 decreases ROS levels and cell injury during ischemia-reperfusion in the heart by inhibiting PARP activity.
Influence of BGP-15, a nicotinic amidoxime derivative, on the vascularization and growth of murine hepatoma xenografts.
BACKGROUND: The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a key regulator of angiogenesis, is controlled by the oxygen supply. Previous observations suggested that nicotinic amidoxime derivatives (i.e. BGP-15) might interfere with the induction of hypoxia-sensitive genes. Hence, the effect of BGP-15 on angiogenesis was studied in Hepa 1c1c7 tumor xenografts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepa 1c1c7 hepatoma cells were implanted under the dorsal skin of female CD-1-nu/nu immunodeficient mice. One group of animals was given 100 mg/kg body weight/day BGP-15 intraperitoneally during tumor development. Vascularization, apoptotic and mitotic indices were determined by the histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the tumors. VEGF and GLUT-1 expressions were measured by Northern blot. RESULTS: The in vivo administration of BGP-15 resulted in a decrease in tumor weight and mitotic index, while it did not affect the apoptotic rate in the xenograft. Furthermore, BGP-15 treatment depressed microvascular density and the level of VEGF mRNA by 50%, and similarly decreased GLUT-1 mRNA levels. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that BGP-15 suppresses hepatoma development by affecting angiogenesis.
Improvement of insulin sensitivity by a novel drug, BGP-15, in insulin-resistant patients: a proof of concept randomized double-blind clinical trial.
The efficacy and safety of the new drug, BGP-15, were compared with placebo in insulin-resistant patients in a 28-day dose-ranging study. Forty-seven nondiabetic patients with impaired glucose tolerance were randomly assigned to 4 weeks of treatment with 200 or 400 mg of BGP-15 or placebo. Insulin resistance was determined by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique and homeostasis model assessment method, and beta-cell function was measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test. Each BGP-15 dose significantly increased whole body insulin sensitivity (M-1, p=0.032), total body glucose utilization (M-2, p=0.035), muscle tissue glucose utilization (M-3, p=0.040), and fat-free body mass glucose utilization (M-4, p=0.038) compared to baseline and placebo. No adverse drug effects were observed during treatment. BGP-15 at 200 or 400 mg significantly improved insulin sensitivity in insulin-resistant, nondiabetic patients during treatment compared to placebo and was safe and well-tolerated. This was the first clinical study demonstrating the insulin-sensitizing effect of a molecule, which is considered as a co-inducer of heat shock proteins.
Effects of different small HSPB members on contractile dysfunction and structural changes in a Drosophila melanogaster model for Atrial Fibrillation.
The most common clinical tachycardia, Atrial Fibrillation (AF), is a progressive disease, caused by cardiomyocyte remodeling, which finally results in contractile dysfunction and AF persistence. Recently, we identified a protective role of heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially the small HSPB1 member, against tachycardia remodeling in experimental AF models. Our understanding of tachycardia remodeling and anti-remodeling drugs is currently hampered by the lack of suitable (genetic) manipulatable in vivo models for rapid screening of key targets in remodeling. We hypothesized that Drosophila melanogaster can be exploited to study tachycardia remodeling and protective effects of HSPs by drug treatments or by utilizing genetically manipulated small HSP-overexpressing strains. Tachypacing of Drosophila pupae resulted in gradual and significant cardiomyocyte remodeling, demonstrated by reduced contraction rate, increase in arrhythmic episodes and reduction in heart wall shortening, compared to normal paced pupae. Heat shock, or pre-treatment with HSP-inducers GGA and BGP-15, resulted in endogenous HSP overexpression and protection against tachycardia remodeling. DmHSP23 overexpressing Drosophilas were protected against tachycardia remodeling, in contrast to overexpression of other small HSPs (DmHSP27, DmHSP67Bc, DmCG4461, DmCG7409, and DmCG14207). (Ultra)structural evaluation of the tachypaced heart wall revealed loss of sarcomeres and mitochondrial damage which were absent in tachypaced DmHSP23 overexpressing Drosophila. In addition, tachypacing induced a significant increase in calpain activity, which was prevented in tachypaced Drosophila overexpressing DmHSP23. Tachypacing of Drosophila resulted in cardiomyocyte remodeling, which was prevented by general HSP-inducing treatments and overexpression of a single small HSP, DmHSP23. Thus, tachypaced D. melanogaster can be used as an in vivo model system for rapid identification of novel targets to combat AF associated cardiomyocyte remodeling.
BGP-15, a PARP-inhibitor, prevents imatinib-induced cardiotoxicity by activating Akt and suppressing JNK and p38 MAP kinases.
In this study, we investigate the cardiotoxic effects of the well-known cytostatic agent imatinib mesylate (Gleevec), and presented evidence for the cardioprotective effect of BGP-15 which is a novel insulin sensitizer. The cardiotoxic effect of imatinib mesylate was assessed in Langendorff rat heart perfusion system. The cardiac high-energy phosphate levels (creatine phosphate (PCr) and ATP) were monitored in situ by (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and the activation of signaling pathways were determined from the freeze-clamped hearts. Prolonged treatment of the heart with imatinib mesylate (20 mg/kg) resulted in cardiotoxicity, which were characterized by the depletion of high-energy phosphates (PCr and ATP), and significantly increased protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. Imatinib mesylate treatment-induced activation of MAP kinases (including ERK1/2, p38, and JNK) and the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. BGP-15 (200 μM) prevented the imatinib mesylate-induced oxidative damages, attenuated the depletion of high-energy phosphates, altered the signaling effect of imatinib mesylate by preventing p38 MAP kinase and JNK activation, and induced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK-3beta. The suppressive effect of BGP-15 on p38 and JNK activation could be significant because these kinases contribute to the cell death and inflammation in the isolated perfused heart.